Research status and development prospect of the ho

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Analysis of the research status and development prospects of intelligent sensors

IOT has become the development trend of information technology. Various intelligent devices will be used as the carrier of sensors to realize the seamless interaction between human, machine and cloud, so that intelligent devices can be combined with artificial intelligence (AI) to have "intelligence", so that human perception can be expanded and extended. At present, there are more than 1700 enterprises engaged in the research, production and application of sensors in China, and the industrial categories are basically complete. The sensor products have reached 10 categories, 42 sub categories and more than 6000 varieties. Whether in health care, urban planning or urban transportation, sensors are playing a core role

previously, the Ministry of industry and information technology issued a letter of opinion that 16 projects, including the industrialization of MEMS sensors selected by the Chinese Academy of engineering group with abnormal pendulum position, are intended to be major landmark projects of made in China 2025 in 2017. As more devices shine through sensors and improve efficiency, the mission of the next generation of engineers, innovators and artists is to explore the almost unlimited opportunities offered by the world of data

1. Introduction to smart sensor

1.1 concept of smart sensor

the concept of smart sensor was first proposed by NASA in the process of developing spacecraft, and formed a product in 1979. The IEEE Institute calls the integrated sensor that can provide the size of the controlled quantity or the quantity to be sensed and can typically simplify its application in the network environment as smart sensor. The book "principles and applications of modern new sensors" believes that intelligent sensors are sensors with microprocessors, which have the functions of information detection, information memory, logical thinking and judgment

intelligent sensor is a high-tech developing at a high speed, which has not yet formed a unified and standardized definition. It is generally believed that intelligent sensor is a sensor with the ability of automatic collection, data processing, self diagnosis and self adaptation of external environment and other information

1.2 function of intelligent sensor

(1) self compensation and self diagnosis function: the output of the sensor can be verified through the diagnostic algorithm in the microprocessor, and the diagnostic information can be directly presented, so that the sensor has the function of self diagnosis

(2) information storage and memory function: use the built-in space to store historical data and various necessary parameters, which greatly improves the performance of the controller

(3) self learning and adaptive function: the self-learning function can be realized through the embedded microprocessor with advanced programming function. At the same time, during the working process, the intelligent sensor can also reconstruct the structure and parameters according to certain behavior rules, with adaptive function

(4) digital output function: the intelligent sensor is internally integrated with an analog-to-digital conversion circuit, which can directly output digital signals, relieving the signal processing pressure of the controller

2. Intelligent sensor application field and its development status

2.1 civil engineering

as a major civil engineering and infrastructure country, China has bridges, dams, nuclear power plants, water supply and power supply system projects for decades. Due to environmental and self factors such as corrosion and material aging, engineering damage and disaster resistance decline are inevitable, Therefore, the role of intelligent sensors in the field of civil engineering is particularly important

Zhou Zhi and Ou Jinping of Harbin Institute of technology analyzed the temperature sensing characteristics of fiber Bragg grating and the temperature compensation principle and method of strain sensing, developed a fiber Bragg grating encapsulated sensor to meet engineering applications, established a large-scale, distributed fiber Bragg grating intelligent monitoring system including sensors, optical switches, data acquisition and control software, and successfully applied it to the actual construction of bridges, The temperature sensor is combined with building materials and used in local health monitoring of bridges, and good results have been achieved

2.2 medicine

in the biomedical field, sensors, as the core components, have been applied to many detection instruments, which are related to human health. There are often higher requirements for medical sensors, not only for their accuracy, reliability, anti-interference, but also for their external characteristics such as volume and weight, Therefore, the application of sensors in medicine reflects the development level of sensors to a certain extent

with the gradual introduction of wearable and implantable micro intelligent sensors, the development of medical testing instruments has made a milestone leap. Feng Wei and Chen Zhongben of Sun Yat sen University have studied a real-time human body monitoring system. The system uses multiple micro intelligent sensors to achieve human health data acquisition, processing and communication through wireless networks based on Bluetooth technology. The main server analyzes and calculates the data and feeds it back to each node to monitor the monitored object in real time to avoid sudden diseases, This kind of wearable intelligent sensor can also be used in high-intensity sports competitions such as football matches or high-intensity training of athletes

2.3 automobile and transportation

the development of transportation is gradually moving towards systematic, standardized and intelligent management, establishing a complete intelligent transportation system in the city, using intelligent information collection and processing, data communication and other technologies to realize the multiple unity of human, vehicle and road information, further intelligent regulation of traffic operation system, and using road sensor network to obtain the infrastructure The data of various vehicles and the moving state of people make it possible for the transportation system to realize intelligent detection and control

at present, large-scale production of intelligent sensors has been realized in the fields of vehicle safety driving system, body system, intelligent transportation system and so on. With the continuous updating and improvement of intelligent sensors, they have been widely used in the automotive field. Tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS) is an intelligent monitoring system for monitoring the pressure and temperature of automobile tires. The monitor collects the temperature and pressure data of each tire, and sends different alarm signals according to the abnormal conditions of tire temperature and pressure data to remind drivers to take certain measures, which plays a positive role in preventing major traffic accidents. Lei Pengfei and Shen Huadong of Wenzhou University have studied and designed the application of infrared sensors in the obstacle avoidance system of intelligent vehicles. The red Jinan new era Gold Testing Instrument Co., Ltd. radiated by the obstacle avoidance sensor relies on the business philosophy of "one group of people, one thing in a lifetime". The external line will be reflected when encountering obstacles within a certain range. The sensor detects the signal reflected by the infrared and sends it to the single chip microcomputer, The single chip microcomputer intelligently coordinates the direction and distance of vehicle tires by inputting the internal algorithm, so as to complete the action of avoiding obstacles. At the same time, as a new personal vehicle, the unicycle balance vehicle also uses the built-in sensor to collect the user's posture information and control the forward direction and speed of the balance vehicle, which has become a major innovation in the field of transportation

2.4 military and national defense

military strength is a key indicator to measure a country's national defense strength and comprehensive strength, which plays an important role in national defense construction. As an important part of military forces, the performance of weapon system determines the success or failure of military team operations. The introduction of intelligent sensors into weapon system can not only monitor the changes of battlefield situation in real time, so as to adjust reconnaissance and combat plans in time, but also realize covert surveillance by applying various micro sensor devices, laying the technical and environmental foundation for destroying enemy target points and attacking armed forces. The ground reconnaissance robot of the US Marine Corps is equipped with intelligent sensors with pitch angle and roll angle on the fuselage. This equipment is mainly used to realize diving reconnaissance. In addition, it is equipped with intelligent sensors based on satellite navigation on the fuselage to accurately simulate the battlefield and its surrounding terrain, so as to realize the perfect cooperation of amphibious warfare

2.5 home appliances

Zheng Zhihui and others studied the application of infrared sensors in Intelligent Cloud air conditioning, introduced infrared thermal imaging technology into the application development of intelligent air conditioning, realized intelligent air supply and intelligent start and stop functions, and selected whether to start the air conditioning according to the difference between indoor temperature and user's perceived temperature, as well as the air supply mode and corresponding adjustment parameters. This application combined with zhigaoyun platform realized intelligent fire prevention function, intelligent detection and alarm, Users can know the site situation through the app

2.6 electronic equipment

smart bracelet is the most common wearable electronic device, which can monitor and record users' diet, sleep, fitness and other data in real time through micro proximity sensors, and synchronize these data to smart, tablet and other electronic devices to guide healthy life with data. Li Yilu, Chen Hongbo and others from Guilin University of Electronic Science and technology designed an intelligent step recording Bracelet based on MEMS data output acceleration sensor and ultra-low power MCU. The bracelet uses the sensor to record the amount of walking, calorie consumption and other information of the athlete anytime and anywhere, and transmits it to through Bluetooth, which realizes the good adaptation of the step counting function and improves the reliability of the intelligent bracelet. Helios has designed a smart ring equipped with UV sensor. Users only need to feed back the application of clothing, sunscreen, etc. on the Helios application. The smart ring can provide accurate results according to the intensity of the UV on the day to help users determine the length of sunbathing, etc

2.7 agriculture

smart agriculture is the advanced stage of modern agricultural development, which involves the application of intelligent information technologies such as sensing and measurement technology, automatic control technology, computer and communication technology. Relying on various sensor nodes and communication networks placed in the agricultural product planting area, it implements the field smart planting data for monitoring agricultural production, and realizes visual management, intelligent early warning, etc, Therefore, sensor technology is a key technology in the development of modern agriculture

Cheng Yangyang, Wang Ku, Liu Chao and others from China Agricultural University have designed and developed an intelligent monitoring system for agricultural environment. ZigBee wireless sensor network is built through distributed sensor nodes to collect and transmit information such as air temperature and humidity, carbon dioxide concentration, soil temperature and humidity and light intensity, and these information are collected together with the image data collected by the camera and transmitted to the remote server through wireless radio, Remote monitoring of environmental problems in agricultural production to achieve intelligent and efficient agricultural production management

2.8 ocean exploration

the premise of developing marine resources is the real-time collection and detection of marine information. With the extensive application of IOT technology in the field of marine environment, it is also necessary to periodically verify the marine environment. In order to realize the real-time monitoring of marine environment and the real-time collection of marine information, the intelligent collection of marine information has become the basis to ensure the marine environment monitoring. Yang Xiufang and others designed and developed an information acquisition system based on wireless sensors. By building wireless sensor networks, they can provide real-time marine environment data, make full use of the advantages of ZigBee networks, reduce network forming time by intelligently activating the optimal time interval formed by sensor nodes, reduce power consumption and complexity, and prolong the survival time of wireless sensor networks, Ensuring that the sensor can monitor the marine environment in real time for a long time and collect marine information in real time has certain value for the future marine environmental protection and resource development

2.9 aerospace

nasa needs to regularly test carrier rockets in order to test whether the materials used to manufacture space shuttles have reached their service life

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